Past Doctors of Lawrence County, Tennessee

compiled by Kathy Niedergeses

Several years ago, I started compiling a list of doctors and dentists as I ran across them in various sources. The list below is not complete by any means, so I will be adding to the list at the archives as I find more doctors and dentists. Most of the doctors listed practiced prior to 1900, with a few up to the 1940's. I have tried to provide a little history of doctors in Lawrence County, the laws governing them, and other interesting items.

Many of the early doctors did not have a regular office comparable to doctor's offices of today. Some used a room in their home or a small building close by; a few did have an office in town or one of the communities. There were very few specialists, especially in a small county such as Lawrence, but a few did exist according to their ad in newspapers. A majority of the time doctors traveled to the patient’s home in order to attend to them; particularly to deliver babies, which liked to arrive in the middle of the night. Their diagnostic equipment consisted of a stethoscope, tongue depressor, thermometer, scalpel, syringes, and a few other instruments. Complex equipment did not exist to verify their diagnosis; they relied on their limited knowledge of diseases and experience.

Many times a doctor did not know what caused the problem, they just treated the symptoms. Doctors used the medical treatments that were available at the time, which included herbs, patented medicines, home remedies, and other similar treatments. Antibiotics and most of our other medications did not exist yet. Some common methods of treatment used by 19th-century doctors were bleeding using various methods, the most common being leeches; plasters and poultices for pain, cough, fever; purging by using a laxative such as mineral oil or castor oil; and sweating out the fever or other malady.

There were not many laws regulating physicians and medicines. Some doctors did study at a university, but many simply practiced under a doctor for a certain amount of time, then started practices on their own. This equipped them just about as well as if they had attended a medical school in those early days. Lectures were the main way of learning at many early medical colleges. Many did not have laboratories and bodies to study could only be secured by a family member donating a body to the college, which was rare, or from robbing graves.

It was not until April of 1889 that an act regulating the licensing of doctors was passed by the Tennessee General Assembly to form a Board of Medical Examiners to establish standards and license doctors. The Board of Examiners was formally organized June 18, 1889. I am sure the standards for doctors were basically the same as those for dentists concerning character. The requisite for this license was they should be a graduate of an approved medical school, or should have been actively engaged in the practice of medicine for several years prior to the passage of this law and pass an exam given by the board.

Early dentists traveled to the various communities in the county every few months. Dr. P. E. Hickman traveled from Lawrenceburg to communities that had a depot; methods of traveling to other sections of the county were horseback or horse and buggy. The first establishment of a Board of Examiners for dentists was in 1891 when an act was passed by the TN General Assembly. The requirements were to be at least 21 years old, good moral character and reputation, obtaining a diploma from a reputable college or university, and passing an examination given by the Board.

Lawrence County had its own medical college at Summertown. The Summertown Sanitarium and Medical College was constructed in the late 1880's and was located southwest of the L. O. Crane monument. In addition to serving as a hospital, the Sanitarium held classes in medical science for those interested in becoming doctors. Dr. John E. Usher, who was also a veterinarian, was in charge of the school and had a staff of doctors who practiced in Lawrence County consisting of Dr. Jasper H. Pickard, Dr. Hugh A. Campbell, Dr. C. B. Bailey, Dr. G. W. Heidht, and Dr. Tom Stewart.

Dr. Heidht experimented with medicines made from snake oil and used it to treat patients with rheumatism. When a member of an impoverished family died and they could not afford a funeral, the Sanitarium paid the family for the body. It has been told that several families ran short of money and sold their own bodies to the school for use after their death. Many rumors were started about this school, most of which were false and unfounded. There were several court cases concerning the legitimacy of the college, the "experiments" that took place in it, and the actual credentials of some of the doctors. The sanitarium and college closed in 1904 and was burned down by a careless hunter in 1914.

Besides many other references, there is a large bound ledger at the archives which contains a list of doctors licensed by the State Board of Medical Examiners for the period 1889-1947. With the help of Donna Niedergeses Davis, I have included some of the info provided in this book such as name, age at time of license, where lived, college graduated from, etc. A full list of references is listed at the end of this article.

Allen, (no first name found) - Loretto area for short period early 1900's

Armstrong, William - 1870 census 8th District

Atkins, W. H. A. - N. W. corner square in 1854 practicing under Jones & Atkins; S. Main St., Lawrenceburg in 1858; practicing under Reams & Atkins in 1860. (druggist)

Bailey, C. E. - Summertown

Battle, George W. - 8th District Lawrenceburg area (druggist)

Beard, Benjamin - 1860 census Henryville area

Berry, Kent W. - of Lampassas, TX; age 22 when issued permanent non-graduate diploma in 1909; attended 4 courses of lectures at the Louisville Medical College and University.

Boucher, Josh P. - 1860 census 14th District

Bowman, J. A. - 1880 census 10th District

Buchanan, M. H. - 1880 census 11th District Henryville area

Bumpass, Gabriel - 5 miles N. Lawrenceburg in 1846; 1850 census 8th District Lawrenceburg area; 1870 census 1st District - Iron City area.

Bumpass, James -

Bundrant, W. C. - Loretto area; age 30 at time of license in 1909; non graduate, attended 3 courses of lectures University of Tennessee at Nashville and studied medicine under Dr. G. C. Grimes of Waynesboro for 4 years; later graduated University of TN at Nashville May 2, 1910.

Burdette, William P. - Lawrenceburg; age 52 when licensed in 1911; graduated Vanderbilt University Feb. 24, 1882.

Burdine, T. B. - of Memphis; Henryville area; age 40 when licensed in 1903; graduated Memphis Medical Hospital Apr. 30, 1889.

Burditt/Burdett, W. M. - in drugstore Lawrenceburg in 1858; traveled from area to area to treat & operate on chronic patients in 1861.

Burrows, Byron L. - Nashville; age 27 when licensed in 1915; graduated McHarry Medical College Apr. 20, 1915.

Burton, Orin Morgan - Lawrenceburg; 23 at time of temp license July 19, 1909.

Burton, Wilson M. - Lawrenceburg; age 25 at time non-graduate license in issued 1908; attended 3 courses of lecture at Tulane University, New Orleans. He was a pharmacist.

Byler, S. E. - Lawrence County; licensed 1889; graduated American Medical College of St. Louis, MO Mar. 3, 1885.

Campbell, Hugh Allison - Summertown, Henryville; showed proof of prior practice and non-graduate license issued Aug. 3, 1889.

Carden, James Thomas - graduated University of TN Dental Dept.; licensed 19 Aug. 1905. (dentist)

Chandler, James W. - 1860 census 8th District (druggist)

Cole, A. D. - Loretto area; age 28 at time temp. license in 1910; permanent non-graduate license in 191l; attended 3 courses of lectures University of Nashville.

Cope, John T. - 1870 census 4th District

Cotton, (no first name found) - lived in Lexington, AL; practiced in southern Lawrence Co. also.

Crews, Dan - Ethridge & Lawrenceburg area; age 25 when licensed 1908; graduated University of Nashville Apr. 30, 1908.

Crisenberry, James - 1870 census 7th District

Crittenden, (no first name found) - S. E. corner Lawrence Co. in 1846

Crowder, Virgil H. - Appleton; age 26 when licensed in 1929; graduated University of TN at Memphis June 10, 1929.

Crowder, W. O., Jr. - Appleton; age 23 when licensed in 1940; graduated University of TN at Memphis Dec. 18, 1939.

Crump, John Osborne - 1903-1912 Lawrenceburg (pharmacist)

Danley, James W. - Iron City; age 23 when licensed in 1905; graduated Vanderbilt University Apr. 3, 1895.

Danley, Noah - Iron City, St. Joseph area; licensed 1901; graduated Vanderbilt University Apr. 3, 1901.

Deavenport, M. - 1835/1846 & up in Lawrenceburg (resided in Lawrenceburg Hotel)

Delaney, Joseph P. - Ethridge; age 28 when licensed in 1915; graduated Atlanta Medical College June 2, 1914.

Dodson, H. H. - Loretto area

Edwards, Wiley - 1880 census 1st District

Etheredge, Eli Hugh - St. Joseph, Loretto area; age 26 at time of license in 1912; graduated Birmingham Medical College May 11, 1911.

Farmer, Joseph - Ethridge area

Felton, N. C. - 1890's & early to mid 1900's Ethridge (dentist)

Ford, Bob (real name Herbert Moore) - Dr. Ford, whose real name Herbert Moore, was a colorful character and the last doctor to settle in West Point during the later part of the 1800's. He was a pharmacist in east TN, but left abruptly, for good reason, and arrived in West Point with a wife. He changed his name to Dr. Bob Ford, the real Dr. Ford having been killed recently in a pool room brawl, and began to practice medicine. He became a successful doctor, until he was arrested for practicing medicine without a license and left for unknown parts. (History of Fifteenth Civil District by J. P. Kimbrell, Historical Soc. Bulletins, p. 192-193)

Frierson, J. W. S. - Henryville area

Gallaher, Joseph Alonzo. - West Point; age 29 at time of license in 1908; graduated University of TN Mar. 28, 1900.

Gallaher, William Mack - Lawrenceburg; age 27 when licensed in 1902; graduated Sewanee Medical College Dec. 5, 1895.

Gibson, J. J. - 1850 census Lawrenceburg

Goff, (no first name found) - Alexander Springs area

Gould, Dorsey F. - age 30 when licensed 1902; graduated University of Nashville Mar. 27, 1902.

Griffith, Alfred Luther - of Summit, Blount Co., AL; age 28 when licensed in 1911; graduated Birmingham Medical College Apr. 28, 1911.

Hail/Hale, W. P. A. - S. Military St., Lawrenceburg in 1846

Hall, H. E. - Old Fort, Polk Co., TN; age 24 when licensed; graduated Son. Col. Med. A. Savy., Atlanta, GA; May 6, 1913. (Do not know what abbreviations stand for in name of school.)

Hamilton, J. M. - N. E. corner square Lawrenceburg in 1854; 1860 census W. side square with J. M. Moore

Hampton, Cary D. - Alexander Springs area

Hardiman, Clyde C. - Iron City

Hardison, C. C.- Loretto, later moved to Iron City; of Moorehead City, NC; age 22 when licensed in 1910; graduated University of TN at Nashville May 2, 1910.

Hardwick, Belton H. - Wayland Springs (chiropractor)

Harmon, J. W. - Summertown (dentist)

Harris, Bill - Appleton, Leoma (could be the same as William Claude)

Harris, Leo Clay, Sr. - Leoma, later office in Lawrenceburg on rise on southeast corner of 1st Ave. and Hwy. 64 (at the time the building was two stories and used as a hospital by Dr. Harris); office moved to northeast corner of Mahr Ave. and Deller St.; age 28 at time of license in 1915; graduated University of Memphis May 15, 1913.

Harris, Leo Clay, Jr. - Lawrenceburg; age 23 when licensed in 1934; graduated University of TN in Memphis Mar. 24, 1934.

Harris, William Claude - Lawrence County; temp. license Apr. 3, 1889; non-graduate certificate of perm. license June 11, 1907.

Harris, William Claude, Jr. - Lawrence County; age 28 when issued a temp. license in Nov. 1911; attended 2 terms at University of TN.

Harrison, John H. - Memphis, Shelby Co., TN; license given by the TN State Board of Osteopathic Examination July 27, 1912. (chiropractic)

Harvey, Robert C. - 1880 census 8th District

Harvey, Robert Hester - Had a drugstore and studied medicine; graduated from the University of Nashville in 1868. Practiced in Wayne County for 18 months, then in Lawrenceburg until 1880.

Harwell, James S. - 1860 census 11th District Henryville area

Hearth, J. K. - 1880 census 3rd District

Heidht, G. W. - Summertown, also taught at Summertown Medical College; known as "the snake doctor" because his medical research included cures from the rattlesnake

Henderson, J. F. - 1846 & up W. side square

Henderson, James - 1880 census 8th District Lawrenceburg area (druggist)

Henderson, Rufus G. - 3 miles N. Lawrenceburg in 1846; Oak Factory; 1850 census 8th District

Herbert, C. L. - Wayland Springs; medicine & surgery in 1846; 1850 census in drugstore S. side square with Dr. G. T. Simonson (specialty was medical, surgery, & obstetrics);

Herbert, E. L. - Loretto area

Herbert, Snowden B. - In 1845, he began study of medicine under his brother, C. L. Herbert at Wayland Springs for two years. Had to abandon his studies because of bad health around 1847. During 1855 and 1856 he studied medicine at the University of Lousiville, KY, then practived medicine in Hardn Co., TN until 1861. In 1861, he returned to Lawrence County and practived medicine at Wayland Springs. 1870 & 1880 census 1st District - Wayland Springs area.

Hern, C. F. - 1880 census 3rd District

Herrin, Charles J. - West Point

Hickman, E. P. - Lawrenceburg & traveled whole county late 1800's and early 1900's (dentist)

Horn, Charles J. - West Point

Hottel, Arthur -

Hulme, F. B. - Lawrence County; age 26 at time of temp license June 5, 1910.

Jackson, J. E. - 1st in Loretto upstairs over Meier's building; later in Lawrenceburg (dentist)

Jeter, James Neal - Lawrenceburg; age 22 when licensed in 1941; graduated University of TN at Memphis Dec. 16, 1940.

Jeter, William C. - Attended David Lipscomb University for 2 yrs, then transferred to University of TN at Knoxville graduating in 1942; he then entered the service and afterwards, attended George Peabody College and then graduated from Dental School at University of TN in Knoxville in 1950. Opened his practice in Lawrenceburg Jan. 1, 1951.

Johnson, Andrew - Wayland Springs

Johnson, M. L. - West Point; age 57 when licensed in 1925; graduated University of TN at Nashville May 1901.

Jones, (no first name found) - N. W. corner square in 1854; practicing under Jones & Atkins

Jordan, Jay William - Iron City; age 54 when licensed in 1938; graduated Atlanta School of Medicine Apr. 22, 1908.

Kellogg, William F. - Ethridge area; age 41 when licensed in 1900; graduated Sewanee Medical College Jan. 13, 1889.

Kennedy, Joseph B. - Lawrenceburg; licensed 1907; graduated Vanderbilt University Mar. 1, 1893.

Landis, William Carl - Crestview area; age 27 at time of license Jan. 18, 1908; graduated Bennett Medical College May 7, 1907.

Leath, M. M. - 1860 census 3rd District

Leechman, (no first name found) - Redhill area late 1800's and early 1900's

London, Doc - 1850 census 8th district Lawrenceburg area

Lumpkins, Marion Luther - Lawrenceburg 1919 & up (dentist)

Malloy, Lawrence Benjamin - graduated Vanderbilt University Mar. 22, 1943

Marion, A. J. - 1870 census 14th District

Martin, (no first name found) - 3rd District - Bonnertown area around 1929 & up. Also had drugstore

Martin, Hicks - Appleton; age 71 when licensed 1923; graduated Electic Medical College of GA Mar. 1871.

Martin, Robert K./B. - 1860 & 1870 census 12th District - Henryville area

Mason, Samuel A. - 1880 census 1st District

Massey, Richard H./A. - 15 miles N. Lawrenceburg in 1846; 1850, 1860 & 1870 census 12th District - Henryville area

Matthews, Jim - 1st doctor to live in Loretto area

McAmis, Thomas Arthur - Decatur, Morgan Co., AL; age 32 when licensed in 1911; graduated Birmingham Medical College June 7, 1911.

McClain/McLean, Ephriam - Studied medicine under Dr. J. M. Hamilton in Lawrence County; started practicing in 1855; Bentley Brick Row S. E. side square 1853 (resided S. Main St.); Lawrenceburg 1858; S. Main St. in former Lewis Miller house 1860; at drugstore (resides Florence St.) 1873; 8th District Lawrenceburg 1880 census; E. side square 1891. (Specialty was eyes, ears and removal of Wens (small tumor) with a knife.

McClure, H. D. - Studied medicine under Dr. S. B. Herbert for 3 years, afterwards practicing with Dr. Herbert for 3 years in the Wayland Springs area. He later practiced on his own.

McConkey, R. J. - 1880 census 11th District Henryville area

McConnell, E. L. - South Lawrence area (lived in AL)

McDougal, James F. - Iron City/Wayland Springs area; 18 miles S. West Lawrenceburg in 1846; 1870 census 1st District

McLean, John B. - 1880 census 8th District

McMackin, John B. - Wayland Springs; showed proof of prior practice; issued non-graduate license 26 Aug. 1889; 1891 practicing under name Herbert & McMackin.

Methvin, Ray - Loretto

Milliken, T. J. Austin - Summertown; 59 when licensed in 1913; graduated Michigan College of Medicine & Surgery Mar. 29, 1894

Mitchel, T. E. - 1880 census 10th District (dentist)

Molloy, Lawrence Benjamin - Nashville, TN; age 23 when licensed 1943; graduated Vanderbilt University Mar. 22, 1943.

Moore, Herbert – alias Bob Ford (see Ford)

Moore, J. M. - W. side square with Dr. J. M. Hamilton in 1860

Moore, J. R. - S. W. corner square 1854

Neal, Paul A. - West Point; licensed 1889; graduated Vanderbilt Medical College, Nashville Mar. 1, 1886.

Neal, Wiley Horatio - Lawrenceburg; age 26 when license issued 1901; graduated University of Nashville Mar. 31, 1889.

Neal, Wiley W. - West Point, Loretto, Lawrenceburg. 2nd door from drugstore in Lawrenceburg in 1860 (resided Main St. in former Martin V. Bentley home); 1870 census 15th District West Point area; 1880 census 15th District.

Neal, Will - Lawrenceburg

Nester, Murlin - Nashville, TN; age 30 when licensed in 1936; graduated College of Medical Evangelists June 18, 1935.

Noblitt, Michael - Loretto area (dentist)

Oliver, J. M. - 1880 census 3rd District

Paine, James -

Paine, Jerry A. - 1870 census 15th District

Parker, W. W. - licensed 1922; graduated Vanderbilt University Dec. 19, 1889.

Parrish, V. L. - Loretto, later Lawrenceburg

Patterson, Ashby M. - Henryville; age 31 when licensed in 1921; graduated Vanderbilt University June 8, 1921.

Patterson, William B. - Columbia, Maury Co., TN; age 35 when licensed in 1941; graduated University of Pittsburg June 11, 1930.

Pickard, Jasper H. - Summertown, Henryville; age 21 at time licensed in 1898; graduated Vanderbilt University Medical College Mar. 31, 1898.

Powell, James B. - Studied medicine under Dr. James Kyle of Florence, AL at the age of 21; 1880 census Wayland Springs area where he practiced until 1886*, then moved to St. Joseph and was appointed United States examining surgeon; license issued in 1889; graduated Vanderbilt University Medical College of Nashville Mar. 7, 1889. (*Is this date possibly wrong since he was not licensed until 1889?)

Rainey, Joshua L. - 1870 census 11th District Henryville area; 1880 census 13th District

Ratcliff, F. H. - Lawrenceburg (dentist)

Reams, John W. - 1860 census 8th District (druggist)

Reavis, J. J. - Lawrenceburg early to mid 1900's (dentist)

Richardson, Wiley G. - 10 miles west Lawrenceburg in 1846; 1860 census 15th District

Rippy, Billy J. - Loretto area (dentist)

Robertson, James G. - Versailles, Rutherford Co., TN; age 37 at time licensed in 1899; graduated University of TN Mar. 28, 1896.

Rogers, Ivadell - Lawrenceburg; age 48 at time of license in 1914; graduated Electic Medical College Apr. 1898.

Rose, David E. - 1880 census 8th District (druggist)

Rowles, W. P. -

Shaw, W. J. - 1880 census 3rd District

Simmons, George S. - 1880 census 1st District

Simonson, G. T. - 1850 in drugstore S. side square with Dr. Herbert (speciality medical, surgery, & obstetrics)

Skillern, W. B. - 1860 census 15th District

Skyllen (Skillian ?), (no first name found) - 13 miles N. W. of Lawrenceburg 1846

Spindle, John P. - Henryville area

Spottswood, P. W. - 1880 8th District Lawrenceburg area (druggist)

Statton, (no first name found) - Loretto

Stewart, Daniel M. - 1870 census 8th District; surgeon & physician E. side square over Spottswood Drugstore in 1873.

Stewart, Edward S. - Summertown; age 25 at time of license in 1911; graduated Vanderbilt University May 23, 1911.

Stewart, Tom - Summertown

Stockard, Charles Cleveland - Henryville area & Lawrenceburg; age 25 at time issued non-graduate permanent license in 1909; attended 3 courses of lectures at University of Nashville and studied medicine under W. J. Stockard for 3 years.

Stockard, Thomas J. - Henryville area, Lawrenceburg; 28 when issued non graduates certificate of permanent license in 1909; attended 3 courses of lectures at University of Nashville and studied medicine 3 years under Dr. W. J. Stockard.

Stockard, William James - of Lewis County; graduated Vanderbilt Medical College, Nashville 25 Feb. 1884; licensed 1889.

Stutts, Lee - St. Joseph, Iron City, Loretto area (lived Greenhill, AL)

Sullivan, (no first name found) - Loretto area for short time in early 1900's

Taylor, John Walker - of Rogersville, Hawkins Co., TN; age 23 when issued non-graduate permanent license in 1913; attended 3 courses of lectures at the Memphis Hospital Medical College.

Thornton, Miles D. - 1870 census 1st District

Tilley, John H. - Nashville; age 25 when licensed in 1925; graduated Vanderbilt University June 10, 1925.

Tinsley, B. A. - 10th District late 1800's and early 1900's Deerfield & Redhill area

Trousdale, Preston Simpson - Florence, AL; age 25 when licensed in 1941; graduated Vanderbilt University June 11, 1941.

True, George S. - West Point

Turner, J. L. - Ethridge area (?); proof of prior practice; non-graduate issued license Oct. 3, 1889.

Turner, W. F. - West Point area; age 32 at time of temp. license June 19, 1908; graduated University of TN at Nashville May 14, 1901; age 36 when permanent license issued in 1913.

Upshaw, G. L. - 1880 census 10th District

Usher, John E. - Crestview, Summertown, Henryville area; age 46/47 at time of license in 1908; one license listed that he graduated Curtis Physic Medical Institute Mar., 20, 1896, other license listed he graduated from Marion Medical College, Marion, IN.

Warren, Gordon -

Warren, J. W., Jr. - 1860 census 8th District

Warren, Robert Emmet - Appleton, later in Pulaski; age 25 when licensed 1910; graduated University of TN at Nashville June 1, 1910.

Weathers, Malcom Houston, Jr. - Loretto; age 24 when licensed in 1947; graduated University of TN at Memphis May 7, 1947.

Webb, Walter R. - of Campellsville, Giles Co.; age 29 at time of license in 1900; graduated University Nashville Mar. 30, 1900.

Welch, George - West Point

Welch, John W. - He began the study of medicine in 1851 under Dr. H. H. Dodson and then continued under W. P. Hale. He practiced in Hickman Co., TN for 2 years; next practicing in Perry County for 4 years. 1870 census 15th District West Point area; 1880 census 15th District

Wheatley, A. C. C. - 1860 census 8th District (druggist)

White, Augustus J. - He began studying under Dr. James E. Edwards and later graduated from the University of TN at Nashville.

White, Russel Pickney - Loretto area; age 29 at time of temporary license June 19, 1908.

Willhite, J. W. - 1880 census 3rd District

Williams, G. T. - 1880 census 11th District Henryville area

Williams, Robert B. - Elkmont, Limestone Co., AL; age 26 when licensed in 1912; graduated Vanderbilt University May 21, 1912.

Womack, Charles W. - Appleton; age 29 when licensed in 1902; graduated University of Nashville 27 Mar. 1902.

Yeiser, E. R. - Houston, Wayne Co., TN; licensed 1908; graduated Evansville College Feb. 27, 1874.

If you have corrections or additions, please contact the Lawrence County Archives at 218 N. Military Ave., Suite B-1, Lawrenceburg, TN 38464; (913) 766-1576; email:


Newspapers - 1846 Academist upward

Souvenir Edition of the Lawrenceburg Times, April 16, 1909

Medical License Book 1889-1943

1850, 1860, 1870, & 1880 Lawrence County, TN Census

Wayland Springs by Imogene Hagan

History of Fifteenth Civil District by J. P. Kimbrell

History of Fourteenth Civil District by William Fields Alexander

Henryville by Ruth Dickey

Bill Ross 'The Snake Man' by J. F. Gibbs, Democrat Union

Loretto In the Happy Long Ago by Charles E. Reeves

A Look at the Past: A History of Summertown by Sandy Curtis

History of Lawrence County Vol. 2, 3, by Bobby Alford

History of Ethridge

History of Loretto by Estha Cole

History of West Point by Paul Welch

Journals of Henry Bernard Feldhaus, Jr. transcribed by Kathy Niedergeses

Goodspeed's Histories of TN by Goodspeed

Legislative Acts of Tennessee.

Updated 24 November 2012                                                    Return to Archives Main Page